General and late-breaking abstracts should present new research in HIV, hepatitis viruses, SARS-CoV-2, monkeypox, and other viral infections and their related conditions. The CROI Scientific Program Committee and external reviewers review and score submissions. Abstracts are selected on the basis of their medical and scientific significance, timeliness, quality of data and methodology, and adherence to specific format requirements described below.  

As always, the best and most consequential original research will define the science at CROI, including research in HIV, hepatitis viruses, SARS-CoV-2, monkeypox, and other viral infections and their related conditions. Abstracts that have not been published or presented at a large HIV or SARS-CoV-2 conference prior to CROI will be eligible for inclusion at CROI, the world’s foremost conference of its kind.

Abstract Content

CROI abstracts include the following elements: title, author names with professional affiliations, background, methods, results, conclusions, and can also include 1 table or figure (optional). In addition, the submitting author must provide the following information: the abstract category, 2 to 5 search terms, and whether the abstract has been previously published or presented. Finally, the abstract submitter must agree to abstract submission requirements (eg, the presenting author will present the abstract in the format designated by the CROI Program Committee; all coauthors have reviewed and approved the content of the abstract and their inclusion in the list of authors). These elements are described further below. 

Character Allowances

Section headings (ie, Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions), are not included in the abstract body character count. Do not include these headings in the body of the submitted text. Please use the counters on the abstract submission system to track the character count. Character limits are as follows: 

  • Title: Up to 85 characters, including spaces. 
  • Body: Up to 2500 characters, cumulative, including spaces. 
  • Tables and Figures: Characters within tables or figure legends are not included in the cumulative abstract character count. See the Tables and Figures section for limitations on the size of tables and figures

The abstract title should be concise and clearly convey the subject of the abstract. Titles should be written in ALL UPPERCASE LETTERS. 



Requirements for Authorship: Authors listed in the abstract should conform to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for authorship: 

  1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND 
  2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND 
  3. Final approval of the version to be submitted; AND 
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved 

See: ICMJE Defining the Role of Authors and Contributors 

Author Listing: Up to 15 authors can be included on each abstract, plus 1 research team or group (if applicable). To include the name of a research team or group, follow the instructions on the abstract submission system. Please do not enter individual coauthor in the research group field (they will be deleted). To update an author’s institution in the abstract submission, the author must be deleted and readded onto the abstract. 

Author Affiliations: Indicate each author’s professional affiliation by selecting the institution from the list provided in the abstract submission system. The list can be filtered beginning with the first word of the institution name. In general, the list does not use abbreviations for institutions, although there are some exceptions (eg, CDC, US CDC, NIH, CHU, and INSERM are used as abbreviations). Department names and school names are not used unless they are part of the institution name (eg, San Francisco Department of Public Health). 

Research Collaborators: Individuals who are not listed as coauthors on an abstract can be considered research collaborators if they contributed substantively and measurably to the scientific development or execution of the project. Up to 5 research collaborators can be added to an abstract. Research collaborators should meet most of the same authorship criteria described the ICMJE recommendations above. Research collaborators will have access to early registration for CROI (along with accepted abstract authors). 

Posthumous Inclusion of a Coauthor in the Author Listing: The posthumous recognition of a coauthor is permitted if the author made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work. The abstract submitter should email to request the inclusion of the deceased author as 1 of the up to 15 authors listed on the abstract and include the author’s full name, affiliation of the author during the study, and attest that the deceased author meets the authorship criteria. In this way, the deceased author will be added to the abstract, but will not have an account in the system or receive the routine notifications.

Abstract Sections

The body of a CROI abstract is divided into 4 sections: Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Text submitted should 1 paragraph per section and should not include the section headings within the text. The headers will be added by the abstract submission system so they will not be counted toward the character limit. 


Why was the study conducted? Briefly describe the rationale of the study, which can include the hypothesis. 


What did you do and how did you do it? Detail the experimental methods, statistics, and processes employed in the study. 


Describe the findings of the study, including data. Promises of results “to be determined” are not acceptable. Abstracts without data may be rejected. The results section should include sex stratification and other demographic variables and use appropriate terminology.   


What does the study suggest or imply? Logically describe sound conclusions and reliable inferences drawn from the study results. 

Table or Figure

The inclusion of a single figure is permitted in an abstract submission if it provides essential detail about the work that cannot be adequately described in the text of the abstract. The figure should be visible in a 4-inch by 4-inch box (10.15 cm x 10.15 cm) if printed. Remember that some individuals may view the abstract and graphic on a smartphone or device, making clarity and readability even more essential. Describing every possible scenario in terms of guidelines for including a figure or table is not possible or practical, and we ask submitters to use their best judgment. Some general parameters include:

  1. The figure or graphic conveys essential information about the work that the abstract could not adequately describe. If not, it need not be included and is better detailed in the poster or oral presentation if accepted. Keep in mind that the abstract is a high-level summary of your key findings to help reviewers and participants determine their interest in your full presentation.
  2. The figure or table can be easily viewed, including headers, figure legends, and data points, for example, in the 4-inch by 4-inch space described above.
  3. The use of more than 1 panel in a single figure is acceptable as long as the figure adheres to item 1 (above). A 2- or 3-panel figure may be acceptable; any figure with more than 4 panels is likely too complex for the purposes of an abstract. If the uploaded image includes more than 1 figure or table, it will not be included in the final abstract.
  4. The maximum size for a table is 8 columns x 12 rows.  The number of columns and rows in a single table is best limited to 5 or 6 of either.

Special Notes on Abstract Content

Trade Names

Trade names for drugs should not be used in abstracts. Refer to drugs and products by their nonproprietary names. 

Statements of Support

Statements of grant support or funding statements may not be included in the abstract text (eg, Study was funded by NIH). Statements of support may be included in the presentation of the abstract at CROI, if accepted. 

Sex Stratification and Other Demographic Variables

Abstracts from randomized trials and cohorts should follow the ICMJE guidelines, including reporting of study designs (eg, prospective, observational, randomized, double-blind, STROBE, CONSORT, or others), statistical methods, and outcomes by demographic variables. For human clinical or epidemiological studies, the presentation should provide sex-stratified results or identify who was included if it includes only a single population. Abstracts of preclinical data including the use of cell lines and animal studies should include the sex of the animals or the sex of the source of the cell lines. If data are not available on sex (as assigned at birth) or gender (where gender is relevant to the study results), this should be identified as a limitation in the study.  

See: ICMJE Preparing for Submission 

Use of Appropriate Terminology

It is important to use  “people first” language such as “people with HIV” rather than “HIV-infected people.” Similarly, do not characterize people by their conditions. “People with diabetes” is preferred over “diabetics”; “patients with cirrhosis” rather than “cirrhotics;” “people who inject drugs” rather than ‘drug abusers.” Out of respect for their contributions to our scientific advances, avoid calling study volunteers “subjects.” The preferred terms are study “participants” or “volunteers.” Ensure correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial or cultural factors). Appropriate terminology such as “cisgender” (people whose gender matches the sex assigned at birth) or “transgender” (people whose gender does not match the sex assigned at birth) should be used. 

Abstracts Describing New Compounds

Please be sure to include information sufficient to allow for meaningful review of compound data; this can include isolation, activity, chemical structure, mechanism of action, toxic effects, and pharmacologic data. The chemical or molecular structure must be shown in the presentation (it need not be part of the abstract or be published in the abstract eBook). 

Case Reports and Systematic Reviews

In general, CROI does not accept abstracts for case reports, meta-analyses, or systematic reviews unless they are of enormous public health significance. 

Additional Required Information

Previous Submission, Publication, or Presentation of Data or Abstract

In general, CROI does not accept work that has been previously published or publicly presented, or that is scheduled to be published or presented prior to CROI. Consideration may be given to a previously presented submission if meaningful newer data or different analyses are included, or if the prior or anticipated presentation was or will be at a conference not focused on HIV-, viral hepatitis, or SARS-CoV-2-related topics. Electronic publication ahead of print that has been peer-reviewed and made generally accessible to the public is considered publication. However, if the authors provide an explanation of new data that will be presented at CROI beyond the prepublication, the abstract will be considered for presentation. 

If study data have been published, submitted for publication, or previously presented at another major HIV- or SARS-CoV-2-related national or international scientific or medical conference (ie, generally more than 400 attendees), the abstract submitter will be asked to provide the following details during submission: the name and date (or anticipated date) of the publication or conference presentation, and whether anyone holds the copyright on those data. Abstract text that is under copyright by a publication or another conference should not be submitted to CROI. 

If study data are accepted for publication or presentation after the abstract submission to CROI, and that publication or presentation is expected to take place before CROI, the presenting author must contact the conference manager at to provide details as soon as the presentation is accepted for review, presentation, or publication in another venue or outlet. Please be aware that, while publication in these circumstances will not necessarily prevent presentation of the research at CROI, our strong preference is that any additional publication or presentation happens either simultaneous to or following presentation at CROI. Requests to publish or present research accepted for presentation at CROI prior to its presentation at CROI will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Failure to notify the conference promptly regarding plans to publish or present a CROI-accepted abstract prior to CROI may result in the removal of the study from the conference program. 


Choose from the established list of CROI topic categories. Categories are used to assign each abstract to the review team whose expertise matches that of the abstract’s subject matter. Please keep in mind that, on review of the abstract, the Scientific Program Committee and external reviewers may elect to assign an abstract to a category deemed more appropriate.  

See: Categories and Definitions 

Search Terms

Up to 5 search terms are allowed. Search terms should be chosen from the standard list whenever possible, but if a desired search term is not found in the CROI search term database, free text can be entered. In general, a search term should be a single word. Complex terms should be simplified and entered as separate search terms (eg, “breast milk transmission” should be entered as separate search terms: “breast milk” and “transmission”). 

Confirmation of Abstract Submitter Responsibilities

The person who submits an abstract must affirm the following on behalf of the presenting author. 

Failure to comply with these policies may result in the withdrawal of the presentation from CROI

  • ALL coauthors have reviewed and approved the abstract’s content 
  • If accepted, the presenting author will present the abstract by the format designated by the CROI Program Committee (eg, Oral Abstract, Poster, Science Spotlight, etc) and will be present for the session(s) in which they are the presenting author 
  • Financial relationships with commercial entities have been disclosed for the presenting author, their spouse or partner, and their institution (to themselves or to their institution on their behalf). If the new presenter is designated after disposition, financial disclosures of the new presenting author must be provided 
  • If the designated presenting author is unable to present the abstract at CROI, a new presenter from among the coauthors listed on the abstract will be designated. The new presenter must provide a disclosure of financial relationships with commercial entities for theirself, spouse or partner, and institution 
  • Complete and accurate contact and affiliation information for ALL coauthors and correct email addresses have been provided 
  • Permission is given for the presentation to be videotaped and/or recorded and the abstract to be published in the Abstract eBook, CROI website, Topics in Antiviral Medicine (for eventual listing in the National Library of Medicine), and other related conference materials 

It is important that the authors commit to these responsibilities. At the discretion of the Program Committee Chairs, authors may be subjected to penalties, including a ban on registration at future CROI. 

Changes in Presenting Author

The author noted as the presenting author on an abstract is responsible for giving the presentation if the abstract is accepted. In case of an emergency, an alternate may take the presenting author’s place. The new presenting author must update the abstract submission to disclose information for themself, their spouse or partner, and their institution. The new presenter must be listed as a coauthor on the abstract and must be registered and accepted for attendance at CROI. 

Disclosure of Financial Relationships

The abstract submitter is responsible for the disclosure of financial relationships with commercial entities for the following: 

  • Presenting author 
  • Spouse or partner of the presenting author 
  • Grants to the presenting author, spouse, or partner paid to their institution 
  • New presenting author (if applicable), including spouse or partner and institution 

See: ACCME definition of commercial interest 

Abstract Review and Notice of Disposition

Each abstract is reviewed and scored independently by 5 to 10 experts in the particular field. The review of abstracts begins immediately after the submission deadline. Therefore, changes to abstracts are not possible after the submission deadline. 

The disposition of each abstract will be sent via email to the abstract submitter and all authors listed on the abstract submission. Accurate professional email addresses for the presenting author and all coauthors are required for this purpose. 

Common Reasons Abstracts Are Not Accepted for Presentation

Because of the number of abstract submissions, the CROI Program Committee is unable to provide feedback on individual submissions. Below are common reasons why abstracts are not accepted for presentation. 

  • Data, including statistical analyses, are not included or offer inadequate/insufficient support for conclusions
  • The subject matter is not appropriate for CROI 
  • All coauthors have not approved the abstract prior to submission 
  • Information is not novel (new enough) 
  • The abstract is duplicative of other submissions 
  • The format does not follow guidelines (eg, data missing, more than 1 table or figure submitted) 
  • The submission is poorly written and difficult to understand 
  • The background does not summarize the hypothesis 
  • The methodology is inadequate or insufficient to support conclusions 
  • Controls are absent or inadequate 
  • Statistical evaluation is inadequate or absent 
  • The summary of essential results is inadequate or absent 
  • Data are not included or offer inadequate/insufficient support for conclusions 
  • Submission reports clinical trial data from unplanned analysis or incomplete or ongoing studies 


By submitting an abstract to the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), authors are transferring all copyright ownership of the abstract, including all rights incidental thereto, to the CROI Foundation in the event that the abstract is accepted and published by the CROI Foundation. For US federal employees, work conducted on an abstract while the author(s) were employed by the US federal government is not protected by the Copyright Act and there is no copyright, thus ownership cannot be transferred. The contents of CROI conference materials are protected by copyright. Permission to replicate or reproduce any part of a CROI abstract must be obtained from the CROI Conference Manager, the International Antiviral Society-USA (IAS-USA); however, study data are the property of the author(s) and study sponsors as relevant. For more information, please email