COVID-19 outcomes among people with HIV (PWH) remain inconclusive. We characterized all cases of COVID-19 identified in a long-term multi-site cohort of PWH, as well as factors associated with increasing severity of COVID-19 during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic.
We examined all PWH with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease identified from laboratory testing data (RT-PCR, antigen test results) and ICD-10 codes March-July 2020 from seven sites in the CFAR Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort. Cases were verified by medical record review. We evaluated predictors of increased disease severity, indicated by hospitalization. Relative risks were estimated using Poisson regression, adjusted for clinical and demographic characteristics using disease risk scores.
Among 13,862 PWH in care (20% female, median age 52 (IQR 40-59), 58% Black or Hispanic race/ethnicity), 198 COVID-19 cases were detected during the study period. A higher proportion of PWH with COVID-19 were female (27%), Black or Hispanic (76%), and had BMI ?30 (45%). No significant differences in CD4+ count (current or lowest) were seen between PWH with and without COVID-19. We found evidence suggesting more unstable housing among COVID-19 cases compared to non-cases (14% vs. 9%). Among PWH with COVID-19, 38 (19%) were hospitalized, 10 (5%) required intensive care, 8 (4%) received invasive mechanical ventilation, and 4 (2%) died. Hospitalization among PWH with COVID-19 was associated with: CD4+ count ?350 (aRR 1.77; 95% CI 1.05, 2.98); age ?60 (aRR 2.0; 95%CI 1.13, 3.54); pre-existing kidney disease with eGFR <60 (aRR 1.76; 95% CI 0.99, 3.13); and BMI ?30 (aRR 1.96; 95% CI 1.02, 3.78) (Table).
The population frequency of COVID-19 detected in PWH was 1.4%, likely an underestimate of the true frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease due to evolving testing availability and access over time. A higher proportion of PWH with COVID-19 were Black or Hispanic, in excess of the overrepresentation of people of color with HIV compared to the general population. PWH with decreased eGFR, low CD4+ count, and obesity had greater risk of more severe COVID-19 disease. Our results highlight disparities in risk of COVID-19 acquisition among PWH in the US and indicate additional vigilance in screening and monitoring of COVID-19 among PWH with these characteristics. The expected accrual of additional COVID-19 cases will allow more precise evaluation of the impact of comorbidities.