In September 2015, WHO announced “Treat all” recommending antiretroviral viral therapy (ART) for everyone living with HIV. The most recent UNAIDS estimates suggest that 15.8 million people are accessing ART and 36.9 million people globally are living with HIV. If we are to reach the ambitious “90-90-90” targets and more than double the treatment cohort, innovations in ART delivery are needed. There are a growing number of examples of differentiated models of ART delivery that provide quality, patient-centred care and in turn, free up the capacity of the health care system to support those most in need. Examples from the field will be presented, alongside data of their effectiveness, evidence of their broader implementation and some insights on what may be needed to support expansion and inclusion in national guidelines. While the principles of differentiation have primarily focused on simplifying models of care for the “stable” patient, the case will be made for their application across other groups of patients, in different contexts and for all sub-populations. Global funders, normative agencies, implementers and civil society acknowledge that innovations to service delivery are urgently required. However, questions remain about how to ensure quality care to the millions of people living with HIV, to what extent differentiated models lead to efficiency gains, and how models of ART delivery can support the HIV continuum of care and other chronic diseases.